Venezuela, by the size is one third more, than the State of Texas, occupies the most part of the northern coast of South America in the Caribbean Sea. It borders on Colombia in the West, on Guyana in the east and on Brazil in the south. Mountain systems divide Venezuela into four various areas:
When Columbus found Venezuela during the third travel in 1498, the territory was populated aravaksky, Caribbean and a chibcha with Indians. The subsequent Spanish researcher gave the country the name meaning "Small Venice". Caracas was founded in 1567. Simon Bolivar who exempted the most part of the continent from Spain, was born in Caracas in 1783. Under the leadership of Bolívar Venezuela was one of the first southern American colonies who rose in 1810, having won in 1821 independence. At first united on the federal beginnings with Colombia and Ecuador as the Republic Great Colombia, Venezuela became the republic in 1830. The period of unstable dictatorship followed. Antonio Gusman Blanco ruled the country from 1870 to 1888, developing infrastructure, expanding agriculture and attracting foreign investments.
The general Juan Vicente Gómez was the dictator from 1908 to 1935 when Venezuela became one of oil most large exporters. After his death the country the military junta ruled. The supporter left, doctor Rómulo Bettencourt, and Party of democratic action won the majority of places in the constituent assembly on development of the new constitution in 1946. The famous writer Rómulo Galyegos, the candidate of party of Bettencourt, in 1947 became the first democratically elected president of Venezuela. Eight months later Galyegos was overthrown as a result of the military coup passing under the leadership of Marcos Perez Jiménez who itself retired in 1958. Since 1959, Venezuela became one of the stablest democratic states in Latin America. Bettencourt served from 1959 to 1964 while Raphael Kaldera Rodriguez, the president from 1969 to 1974, legalized Communist party and established diplomatic relations with Moscow.
Venezuela got big profit on oil boom of the beginning of the 1970th years. In 1974 the president Carlos Andres Pérez entered a position, and in 1976 Venezuela nationalized the foreign oil and metallurgical companies, offering compensations. Luís Herrera Campins became a president in 1978. Decrease in the world prices for oil brought economy of Venezuela into a difficult situation, thereby having increased an external debt of the country. In 1988 Perez was re-elected for inconsistent term and began the unpopular program of austerity. Military officers carried out two unsuccessful attempts of revolution in 1992, and next year the Congress brought to Perez charge of corruption. In December, 1993 Raphael Kaldera Rodriguez was elected the president, and in 1994 it faced crash of a half of the banking sector of the country, falling of prices of oil, repayment of an external debt and inflation. In 1997 the government declared expansion of the industry of gold and diamonds for the purpose of reduction of dependence on oil.
|Ciudad Guayana||Ciudad Guayana|
|Puerto La Cruz||Puerto La Cruz|