The state city of Vatican it is located on the Vatican hill, on the right river bank Tiber, in the city of Rome.Form of government
Pope has full legislative, executive and judicial authority. Executive power over the territory is in hands of the commission of cardinals appointed by the Pope. The board of cardinals is the principal advisory body of the Pope, and after his death cardinals will elect his lifelong successor.History
The state city of Vatican, sovereign and independent, is one of the survived papal states who in 1859 occupied the space approximately in 17000 square miles (44030 km). During fight for association against Italy from 1860 to 1870 the most part of this region began to belong to Italy. Under the Italian law of May 13, 1871 the secular power of the Pope was cancelled, and the territory of papacy was limited to the Vatican and Lateransky palace and a country house Castel Gandolfo. Popes similarly refused to recognize this arrangement. The Lateransky agreement of February 11, 1929 between Vatican and the Italian kingdom founded the autonomous state, the Holy See.
The first session of the Second Universal Vatican Cathedral was open on October 11, 1962 by Ioann XXIII for planning and development of policy on modernization of the Roman Catholic church. The Pope Pavel VI continued council, presiding over an extent of the last three sessions. The second Vatican cathedral revolutionized some affairs of Church. The power was decentralized, having provided to bishops a big role, the liturgy was translated into national language, and laymen received the big power in church affairs.
On August 26, 1978 the cardinal Albino Luchiani was elected by board of cardinals to take a place of Pavel VI who died on August 6 of heart attack. The new Pope accepted a name of Ioann Paul I. Only 34 days after its election Ioann Paul I died of heart attack, having finished the shortest reign for the last 373 years. On October 16 the 58-year-old cardinal Karol Wojtyla was elected the Pope and accepted a name of John Paul II. The Pope John Paul II became the first Polish and first non Italian Pope, since 16th century.