Rwanda is located in the east central Africa is surrounded with the Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Tanzania and Burundi. It is a little less by the size, than the State of Maryland. Cool mountains and deep valleys cover the most part of the territory of the country. Lake Kivu in the northwest, at the height of 4829 foots (1472 m), is the most high-located lake in Africa. To the North from it there are mountains Virunga which include a volcano of Karisimbi (14187 foots; 4324 m), are also the highest point of Rwanda.Form of government
Aboriginals of Rwanda were a tv, tribes of pygmies who make only 1% of the population now. While the Hutu and the Tutsi are often considered as two separate ethnic groups, scientists specify that they speak one language, have history of mixed marriages and have many the general cultural features. Traditionally, distinctions between two groups were professional, but not ethnic. People of the Hutu were considered as farmers while Tutsis were the elite owning cattle. According to the theory, Tutsis were high and thin, and Hutus were low and large on weight, but actually, it was often impossible to distinguish one from others. The Belgian requirement of 1933 that everyone has to have the identity card which indicated an ethnic origin of a tribe - the Tutsi or the Hutu, simplified their distinction. From the moment of independence finding, the repeating violence, both in Rwanda, and in Burundi increased ethnic differentiations between groups.
The European researchers for the first time visited Rwanda in 1854 which in 1890 became part of the German East Africa. During World War I in 1916 it was occupied by the Belgian troops. After war it became the Belgian mandate of League of the Nations, along with Burundi, under the name Rwanda-Urundi. In 1946 the mandate was made by the ward the UN territory. Until Belgian Congo gained independence in 1960, Rwanda-Urundi was controlled within this colony. At first Belgium supported domination of the Tutsi, but as a result called for division of the power between the Hutu and the Tutsi. Ethnic intensity led to a civil war, having forced many Tutsis to run from the country. When Rwanda became the independent state Rwanda on July 1, 1962, it ruled the Hutu.