Romania is in southeast Europe and a little less by the size, than the State of Oregon. The Carpathians mountains divide the top half of Romania from the North to the south and near the center of the country connect to the Transylvanian Alps stretching to the east and to the west. To the North and the West from these mountain chains the Transylvanian Plateau, and is located to the South and the East - plains of Moldova and Walachia. The river Danube, 190 miles long (306 km), flows only through Romania. It flows into the Black Sea near northern Dobrudja, to the South from border with Ukraine.Form of government
Beginning approximately with 100 and till 271 year of our era, the most part of Romania was the Roman province of Dacia. From the 3rd to the 12th century the wave behind a wave of barbarous conquerors took the native dako-Roman population. Submission to the first Bulgarian kingdom (to the 8th - the 10th centuries) brought to Romanians Orthodoxy to the country. In the 11th century Transylvania was a part of the Hungarian empire. To the 16th century the main Romanian principalities of Moldova and Walachia became the states satellites within the Ottoman Empire though they also kept big independence. After the Russian-Turkish war of 1828-1829 they became protectorates of Russia. In 1881 after the Berlin congress the country became the kingdom.
At the beginning of World War I Romania declared the neutrality, but joined the party of allies later and in 1916 declared war to the Central powers. The truce of November 11, 1918 provided to Romania extensive territories from Russia and the Austro-Hungarian empire, doubling that its size. The acquired areas included Bessarabia, Transylvania and Bukovina. Banat, the Hungarian area, was divided with Yugoslavia. In 1930 the king Karol II was crowned, and he transformed a throne to royal dictatorship. In 1938 it cancelled the democratic constitution of 1923. In 1940 the country was reorganized on fascist lines, and the fascist Iron Guard became a kernel of new totalitarian party. On June 27 the Soviet Union occupied Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina. The king Karol II dismissed parliament, provided the full power to the new prime minister Ion Antonesku, abdicated and left the country.
Subsequently on November 23, 1940 Romania signed the Pact of three powers, and in June of the next year joined attack of Germany on the Soviet Union, returning itself Bessarabia. About 270000 Jews were killed in fascist Romania. After invasion of Red Army into Romania in August, 1944 the king Mihai headed revolution which overthrew Antonesku's government. On September 12, 1944 in Moscow the Truce with the Soviet Union was signed. In 1946 the dominating communistic government block won elections, on December 30, 1947 Mihai abdicated, and in 1955 Romania entered the Warsaw Treaty Organization and the United Nations.
Operating a neostalinistsky police state from 1967 to 1989, Nicolae Ceausescu surrounded Romania with the Iron Curtain, turning moderately prosperous country in being on the verge of starvation. In 1982 to satisfy its external debt in 10 billion dollars, it stole everything from the Romanian economy that could be exported, having left the country in desperate shortage of the food, fuel and other necessities. In December, 1989 the army with assistance of revolt led to overthrow, court and execute Ceausescu.
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