Qatar occupies the small peninsula which stretches to the Persian Gulf from east part of Arabian Peninsula. It borders on Saudi Arabia in the West and on the United Arab Emirates in the south. The country generally is fruitless.Form of government
Qatar sheikhs of Bahrain once ruled, but in 1867 war between people and their correspondence governors began. To preserve the peace in the Persian Gulf, British officially proclaimed Mahomed ibn Tani Al Thani, the head of the leading Qatar family, the governor of the region. In 1893 Ottoman Turks tried to take Qatar, but the emir successfully stopped invasions. In 1916 the emir agreed to allow Qatar to become the British protectorate.
In the 1940th years oil therefore in 1950th and 1960th the country grew rich was found. About 85% of the income of Qatar of export arrive from oil. His inhabitants can brag of one of the highest income per capita in the world. In 1971 Qatar had to become part of the United Arab Emirates. But both Qatar, and Bahrain refused merge and instead formed the independent states.
In 1991 Qatar allowed the international forces to use its territory as military base throughout war in the Persian Gulf. The border dispute with Saudi Arabia which as a result was solved in December, 1992 flashed. However territorial dispute with Bahrain for Havarsky islands and remains unresolved. In 1994 Qatar signed the pact on defense with the USA, having become the third state of the Persian Gulf which made it.
In June, 1995 the crown prince Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani overthrew the father, first of all because the king didn't cope with economic reforms in the country. The emir wasn't deprived of the title, and the most part of the power was already in hands of the son. The new emir lifted a ban on censorship of the press and entered other liberal reforms, including democratic elections and an electoral right for women (1999). In 2003 the crown prince Jasim who declared that he never wanted to be a king, abdicated in favor of the younger brother, the prince Tamim.
Qatar is the house of Al Jazeera, very popular and disputable Arab network of satellite television.
On June 9, 2005 Qatar submitted the first constitution. She guarantees freedom of expression, religions and calls for 45-seater parliament. Thirty places will be filled on democratic elections, and the remained places will be appointed by the emir.
The sheikh Abdullah bin Khalifa Al Thani left the prime minister's post in April, 2007. As its replacement the emir appointed the former Minister of Foreign Affairs sheikh Hamad bin Dzhasem Al Thani.