Papua New Guinea occupies east half of the island New Guinea, to the North from Australia, and also many remote islands. The Indonesian province Western Papua (Irian-Dzhaya) is in the West. In the North and the East islands Manus are located, New Britain, New Ireland and Bougainville, everything are part of Papua New Guinea. The country is approximately one tenth more by the size, than the State of California; its mountainous areas were studied only recently. Two large rivers, Sepik and Fly, are navigable for shallow-draft courts.Form of government
Constitutional monarchy with parliamentary democracy.History
Tribes of Papuans, Melanesians and Negritoes who in total spoke more than 700 various languages were the first inhabitants of the island New Guinea. East part of New Guinea was for the first time found in the 16th century by the Spanish and Portuguese researchers. In 1828 Dutches officially seized the western half of the island (nowadays the province Western Papua [Irian-Dzhaya], Indonesia). In 1885 Germany officially attached to itself the northern coast, and Great Britain made similar action with the South. In 1906 Great Britain transferred again independent Australia the rights for the British New Guinea, and the name of the territory was changed to "the Territory of Papua". The Australian troops intruded in the German New Guinea (called Earth of the Kaiser Wilhelm) during World War I and received control over the territory according to the mandate of League of the Nations. New Guinea and some part of Papua were taken by Japanese troops in 1942. After in 1945 it was released by Australians, the country became the member of the United Nations operated by Australia. Territories were integrated and called the Territory of Papua and New Guinea (APG).
Australia provided it limited self-government in 1951. Independence in the solution of internal affairs came nine years later, and in September, 1975, Papua New Guinea reached full independence of Great Britain.
The island of Bougainville underwent the violent nine years' separatist movement. In 1989 guerrillas of the Revolutionary Army of Bougainville (RAB) closed the copper mine belonging to Australia which was the main source of the income for the country on the island. Insurgents considered that Bougainville deserved a big share of the income from production of copper. In 1990 the Revolutionary army of Bougainville declared independence of the island then the government blocked it till January, 1991 when the peace treaty was signed.
On July 17, 1998 the tsunami caused by an earthquake in the northern coast of Papua New Guinea claimed, at least, the lives of 1500 people and thousands of people were wounded and remained homeless.
Many analysts consider that Papua New Guinea is in danger political and economic collapse. The political system of the country is unstable, crime rate sharply increased, corruption, and also the main services, including health care and education prospers, continue to worsen. According to the World bank, 70% of the population of the country live in poverty. In 2006 Australia declared that it was seriously concerned by position of the country and kept the peacekeeping forces in readiness.
In August, 2007 sir Michael Somare was elected for the second term in a row to the prime minister's post, having won against sir Julius Chan.
The governor general sir Paulias Matane was re-elected in June, 2010, but discharged of a position after the Supreme Court decided that elections were unconstitutional. On December 13 Jeffrey Neyp became the acting as the governor general, but without explanation, on December 20 Michael Ogio took his place.
In April, 2011 the court accused the prime minister sir Michael Somare of bad execution of the duties and discharged it of a position for two weeks. Referring to an ill health, its absence lasted, and Sam Abal became the acting as the prime minister. Somare officially retired in June.
In August of that year the vacancy on the prime minister's post appointed by parliament, and Petr O'Neill's election were proclaimed illegal the Supreme Court which then ordered to restore sir Michael Somare on the prime minister's post. Mister O'Neill refused to recognize the resolution and to leave the post. The insurgent group headed by the colonel Sasa lifted mutiny, but failed in the attempts to restore Somare as the prime minister. Parliamentary elections took place in June, 2012.