Panama, the most southern of Central America, is located to the South from Costa Rica and to the North from Colombia. The Panama Canal halves an isthmus in the narrowest and low point that transition from the Caribbean Sea to the Pacific Ocean allows. Panama is a little less by the size, than the State of South Carolina. It includes a chain of mountains in the West, moderate hills in the central region and the low mountain system on east coast. In the fertile region of the Caribbean Region the extensive woods are located.Form of government
Investigated by Columbus in 1502 and in 1513 Balboa, in the period of a colonial era Panama was the main point of delivery to the South and Central America and also from them. In 1821 when Central America rose against Spain, Panama joined Colombia which already declared the independence. For the next 82 years Panama unsuccessfully tried to be disconnected from Colombia. During the period between 1850 and 1900 in Panama 40 governments exchanged, there were 50 revolts, 5 attempts of secessions and 13 interventions of the USA. After the offer of the USA on the channel rights for a narrow isthmus was rejected by Colombia, Panama declared the independence with assistance of the USA in 1903.
For receiving the channel rights for the unlimited term of the USA paid Panama 10 million dollars and agreed to pay 250.000 dollars every year – the sum which was increased to 430.000 dollars in 1933 and to 1.930.000 dollars in 1955. In an exchange of the USA received to Sohn of the Panama Canal – a strip, 10 miles long in width through an isthmus - and considerable influence in affairs of Panama. On September 7, 1977 the general Omar Torrijos Herrera and the president Jimmy Carter signed the contracts providing to Panama gradual control over the channel gradually forcing out military bases of the USA and guaranteeing to the channel a neutrality.
Nicolas Ardito Barletta, openly elected president of Panama, the first for 16 years, was solemnly inaugurated on October 11, 1984 for a period of five years. He was a puppet in hands of the strong general Manuel Noriega, the former employee of CIA and the head of secret police. A year later Noriega replaced Barletta with the vice-president Eric Arturo Delval. In 1988 Noriega was condemned in the USA for drug traffic but when Delval tried to dismiss him, Noriega forced national assembly to replace with Delvale Manuel Solís Palma. In December, 1989 the assembly called Noriega "the maximum leader" and proclaimed war between the USA and Panama. In December, 1989 the 24000th American troops took control over Panama City in attempt to seize Noriega after in Panama the American soldier was killed. On January 3, 1990 Noriega surrendered into custody the USA and was brought in Miami where subsequently he was condemned for a drug trafficking. Guillermo Endara who probably could win the elections suppressed earlier Noriega was proclaimed as the president.
On December 31, 1999 the USA officially I ceded to Panama control over the Panama Canal. Meanwhile, the Colombian insurgents and the militarized forces periodically interfered on the Panama territory, bringing up a question of safety of the country. Panama also faced the increased drug trafficking and the weapon.
In May, 2004 at presidential elections Martin Torrijos Herrera, the son of the former dictator Omar Torrijos, received 47,5% of votes. In September he entered a position.
In 2006 residents of Panama approved the plan of expansion of the Panama Canal. It probably will double the capacity of the channel and, as expected, it will be complete by 2015.
Contrary to the current Latin American tendency of the left governments, on May 3, 2009 Panama chose as the president millionaire businessman Ricardo Martinelli. After the period of rapid economic growth Panama fell a victim of global recession. Benefiting by its personal record of success and using the state in bringing mission to the people, Martinelli promised to encourage foreign investments and to help the poor.
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|Santiago De Veraguas||Santiago De Veraguas|