Kazakhstan is in the north of the central Asian republics and borders on Russia in the north, China in the east, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan in the south, both the Caspian Sea and part of Turkmenistan in the West. It also has also a coastline nearly 1,177 miles long (1,894 km) on the Caspian Sea. Kazakhstan - is approximately four times more than Texas. The territory - mainly consists of steppes with hilly plains.Form of government
Local Kazakhs were the nomadic Turkic people which included some divisions of the Kazakh hordes. They united and lived in the convex tents called by yurtas. Their tribes constantly migrated in search of pastures for their herds of sheep, horses and goats. Though they also had heads, Kazakhs seldom united in one group. Their tribes got under the Mongolian board in the 13th century, and completely submitted to the Tatar khanates while their territory wasn't won by Russia in the 18th century.
Their territory then became part of the Kyrgyz Autonomous republic created by the Soviet authorities in 1920 and in 1925 the name was changed to the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. After 1927 Soviet government started compelling nomadic Kazakhs to locate in collective farms and state farms.
By the end of the 20th century because of an intensive agricultural development of the region and use of the territory of the country by the Soviet government as a test platform for the nuclear weapon, Kazakhstan had serious problems with environmental protection. As well as other Asian republics, Kazakhstan gained the independence after collapse of the USSR in 1991. Kazakhstan declared the independence on December 21, 1991, as well as other ten countries of the former USSR. In 1993 the contract on use in the territory of Kazakhstan of the nuclear weapon is broken off. In 1997 the president Nursultan Nazarbayev completely changed the government, having dismissed one third of ministers. In 1997 the capital of Kazakhstan was renamed from Alma-Ata, the biggest city, into Astana.
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