Iceland, island of the size of Kentucky, is in the North Atlantic Ocean to the East from Greenland and adjoins to Arctic Circle. Iceland - one of the biggest volcanic areas in the world. More than 13% of the territory are covered with snow plains and glaciers, only 7% of the island are made by the fertile earth. Thanks to the Gulf Stream Current climate of Iceland more moderate, than it would be possible to expect from the island adjoining on Arctic Circle.Form of government
The Irish eremites who left the island on arrival of the pagan Norwegian people at the end of the 9th century were the very first residents of Iceland. The constitution made in the 930th century BC, which created a democracy form is the oldest in the world. The early history of the island was kept in the Icelandic sagas of the 13th century.
In 1262–1264, Iceland arrived at the Norwegian board and completely passed under the Danish control by means of association of the kingdoms of Norway, Sweden and Denmark (the Kalmar Union) in 1397.
In 1874 Icelanders received the own constitution, and in 1918, Denmark recognized Iceland, as the certain state with the unlimited sovereignty. Despite it nominally I remained under the Danish control.
During World War II Denmark was strategic air base for British, then for Americans. On June 17, 1944, after a referendum, Alting declared Iceland the independent republic.